Noogenesis and theory of intellect
Works. From the Human Intellect to the Humankind Intellect

From the Human Intellect to the Humankind Intellect

Eryomin A.L. From the Human Intellect to the Humankind Intellect // Nature “Priroda” (from Russian -“Nature”) - Russian Academy of Sciences - RAS.  No.4.  2004. p.23-28.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Eryomin, MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” (Russia)
 
 
From the Human Intellect
to the Humankind Intellect

English Text Copyright © 2009 by Eryomin (with essential corrections
Eryomin A. L.  
Krasnodar Municipal Medical Institute, Chair of Fundamental and Prophylactic Medicine,
350063, Krasnodar, Komsomolskaya Str., 46, Russia
aeremin@yandex.ru  
ABSTRACT. Some fundamental phenomena of intellect are characterized in ecological terms. Parameters describing the activity of intellectual biosystems and forming the information environment are determined: velocity, energy, power, quantity of information etc. The paper presents a model of the ecology of intellectual system.
╩EY WORDS: ecology, intellectual biosystems, parameters, information, environment

In biological and physical sciences, evolution of the whole living organism tends toward ‘cephalization’ [1] or the Psychozoic era or era of Mind [2]. The human being transforms the biosphere into the sphere of the reason – noosphere [3]; the phenomenon of man… - ‘in the unanimous construction of a spirit of the earth’ [4], the person is involved in the evolutionary paradigm of a ‘self-organizing cosmos’ [5]. Mechanisms on a planetary level are similar to those on the cellular and at the level of the organism (geophysiology and Gaia theory) [6]. There exists a ‘human being sphere’ – ‘anthroposphere’ [7]. It is necessary to develop a phenomenology of the noosphere [8] and ‘noogenesis’ [9], to study the information interactions among people as indicators of continued intellectual evolution on Earth: cosmophysics  [10].

It is necessary to define verified concepts and to give a comparative description of intellectual systems, their activity and energy as well as their tools, using representative, exact parameters for construction of new theory through analogy between micro-intellectual (individual human) and macro-intellectual (mankind) systems, making this way a new theory useful for prognosis about mankind’s evolution. Under ‘parameters’ are implied the alphabetic coefficients included in a formula: the numerical sizes describing a condition of any system.

What are the numerical amounts of biophysical parameters of intelligence? What are the modes of intellectual activity most frequently encountered? The answers to these questions will be useful for forming a better self-understanding for each human being of his or her personal parameters of intellectuality.  This can lead to improvement of that element in the cosmos and to forecasting developments in the intellectual content of  civilization in the macrosociety of the Planet.

For this reason, the author has made a number of attempts to develop a ‘formula of intellect’ [9, 11], for the studying of the laws of noogenesis [9, 11] and ecologies of intellectual systems [9, 13]. These researches suggest definition and classification of the verified concepts, the comparative description of intellectual systems and their activity on some representative, exact parameters of intellect. ‘Intellect’ (‘intelligence’) - mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria [14].

The general purpose is to define comparative qualitative parameters of micro and macro intellectual biosystems, and also quantitative values describing their activity.

The prospective applied goal consists in studying the laws of evolutionary development to designate possible vectors and future strategies.  

DETERMINATION OF PARAMETERS

Intellectual velocity (of interaction, of communication, of transfer of the information including through conductors; parameter “v”), a unit of measure - m/s. In the brain, the speed of irradiation of an impulse on a nervous fibre is equal 20 m/s [15], 1-100 m/s [16].  

In the intellectual system of mankind, intellectual velocity is the velocity of interaction between people during evolution. This has increased from the natural speeds of visual and sound communications, caused by human physiology, to the speeds attainable through special communication facilities. These speeds are in a range 3∙102 – 3∙108 m/s (from the velocity of a sound to the velocity of dissemination of electromagnetic waves and electric current, of light).

Intellectual frequency of “computing functions” of intellectual components (time rate; parameter “q”), or rapidity, can be defined as the quantity of processable (received, made, coded) and transferred (including components of a network of intellectual system) information (information operations) in any unit of time. One unit of measurement is a ‘bit or its analogue’/sec.

In the human brain, the frequency of “computing functions” of a nervous impulse,  the period of excitation (3 msec) and refractory (unreceptive) period, with the lowered excitability (6 msec), forms the rapidity in neurons - 102 operations/sec [17]. Signals pass through synaptic connections at a frequency of 100 per sec (100 Hz) [18]. Electric potentials of excitation tissue and special, mainly albuminous, information molecules perform as data carriers. Through the amplitude-frequency principle [19], information is received by receptors and transferred along nerves. The rhythm of the electroencephalogram, with a frequency of about 40 Hz, has managing significance [20], including synchronization of a brain’s bio-potentials and uniting of  all neuronal nets into a single supporting brain system. 

The intellectual system of mankind consists of individual intellects and also of manmade communication systems and systems of information processing.

In a brain 1015 synapses producing 10 impulses/sec [22], together can approximately yield 1016 synaptic operations/sec [23]. In a state of hypnosis a person can accept digital information up to 47.5 bits/sec [24]. The brain can perform nearly 1012 - 1014 operations/sec [25], and has the physical working ability to compute 1013 - 1016 operations/sec [23]. The human brain can be simulated by a computer with a computing capacity of 100 trillions (1014) operations/sec [18]. The frequency of the microprocessors, created by man, is 106 - 1012 operations/sec [17]. In 2005 the fastest computer - Blue Gene/L IBM - was carrying out 2.6∙1014 operations/sec.

Table 1. Parameters of intellectual systems 

(comparative analysis of physiology and physics of human brain and mankind) 

 Parameters of intellectual systems

Kinds of intellectual systemsthe numerical amounts and a ratio of their parameters

Human brain

Ratio: brain/mankind ~ by quantity times

Mankind

Function

Frequency (q) of quantity of operations of intellectual components

~ 102 operations/sec

< 109

~ 106-1016 operations/sec

Velocity (v) of communications between components

20 – 102 m/sec

< 104

3∙102 – 3∙108 m/sec   

Path length (s) between components

from 10-6 m to 0,5 m

< 107

from 1 m to 4∙107 m

Information (I)           i - produced / i-remembered by intellectual system

~ 2,5108 byte a year / ~109 byte during a life

< 1010

~ 181018 byte a year /~ 51018 byte a year

Energy (E) of intellectual systems

~ 106 J by bioenergetics

< 1014

electric-energetics ~1.2•1020 J

Power (P) of intellectual systems

bioenergetics ~ 10 W

< 1012

electric-energetics ~ 2.1•1012 W

Structure

Number of communicative links of component

5∙102–104

< 103

~ 103–109

Number of components (n)

109–1012 neurons

109–1012 people; in present time 6,6 billion;

Sizes of components – and of intellectual systems

10-5 m (neuron) -- 0,5 m (brain)

 < 106

1 m (brain, man) -– 107 m (mankind)

Intellectual activity is directly proportional to the speed of transfer of the information, the frequency of intellectual components, and also the quantity of communications between them; and inversely is related to time – ‘intellectual acceleration’ (quickening, intensification). The retina as a whole carries out about 1010 analogue operations [26] during visual perception. The information is moved at a rate of 3-19 bits/sec. From the human eye through the optic nerve information is moved into the brain at a rate of 10 million  bits/sec [27]. It is possible to assume that researchers have neglected path length, in this case length of the optic nerve; probably because movement at small velocity should have unity “bit∙m/sec”.

Every neuron can be connected by synapses, and accordingly can transfer a signal to 500 [15] - 1000 [28] - 3500 [29] - 10000 [30] nerve cells.

 The quantity of communications among people is variable: from one to one in conversation, extending any person’s possibilities, by means of communication facilities, through the numbers of about 103 telephone subscribers, up to millions through telecasting.  The Earth’s population is now about 6.6 billion. By various estimations this means 5.2 billion literates, 0.9 billion computers, 1.0 billion Internet-users, 1.3 billion telephone land lines, 1.5 billion TVs, 2.4 billion radios, 2.7 billion mobile cellular telephones [31, 32, etc].

 The ability of intellectual systems to reflect on objective (or spiritual) reality, to act as desired, to achieve established aims, to nourish a conscious aspiration, to seek an opportunity to take decisions; the ability of components of the intellectual system or their aggregates or populations to influence one another – “intellectual force” (a will) - , is also in direct dependence on parameters “q” and “v”.   Francis Bacon (XVII century) made clear the relation of force-energy with the parameter knowledge in his famous dictumKnowledge itself is Power’.  But what parameter can be adequate to ‘knowledge’?

 Information operation (the information, parameter ‘I’) means a minimum quantity (quantum) of information event (of any message, of data on something, of notification, of knowledge). The units of measure – Bit.

 In regard to the human brain, some maintain that all neural impulses during a lifetime are held in the brain - up to 1020 bits [33].  Another view is that remembering by the person (visual, verbal, musical) occurs 2 bit/sec, so that during a lifetime, these rates of remembering bring to the person 109 bits of memory [34]. The Earth’s human population, on the average by person, make 250 mbytes [32], i.e.  2,5∙108 bytes a year (which is equivalent 10 byt/sec).

In regard to the intellectual system of mankind, the volume of new information in the information environment is being increased annually by 30 %.  During 2002, mankind made information of 18∙1018 bytes. Thus, in four information environments of preservation are remembered 5∙1018 bytes of information (on paper - 0,01 %, on film - 7 %, magnetic - 92 % and on optical carriers - 0,01 %) [35]. 2 Exabyte (2∙1018 bytes) is the total volume of information generated in 1999.  5 Exabyte is equivalent to all the words ever spoken by human beings. During merely five years (1998-2002), mankind has made and remembered more information than in all previous history [35].

Path length of communications (parameter ‘S’). The network of communications in a brain, working as a unit, unites all neurons without exception. The length of a pathway of communications between neurons spans a range - from the least distance in synapses ~ 10-6 m, up to the perimeter of a brain ~ 0.5 m.

The path length of communications between people covers an interval from the least distance at conversation of 1 m, to dialogue by means of an electronic communication facility ~ 4∙107 m (Equator length).

Intellectual energy (activity, interaction, co-operation; parameter ‘E’) is a quantitative measure of the intensity of interaction of components of an intellectual matter; the ability of the intellectual system to perform reasonable activity, or to be a source of intellectual force which can work; the active force, connected to persistence, in achievement of an established goal (a unit of measure - joule, J = 1═1 cm = kgm2 / sec2.

We may abstract from a variety of information operations and data carriers, to define the parameter of information interaction.   At the stability condition of structures of intellectual systems,  intellectual energy (E), which the intellectual system possesses and also spends, depends on the quantity of the information (I), conducted with acceleration (intellectual velocity – v, and frequency - q) on a communication way (S) between an ascertained quantity of intellectual components.

In the intellectual system of a brain. Promotion of a nervous impulse the distance of 1 mm demands nearly  5 • 10-15 J [23]. The daily average norm of energy, which a human being consumes as food (nutrition), is equal approximately to 2-3 thousand kcals = (0.8 - 1.3) • 107 J [36]. Since the human brain consumes 1/10 part of total energy [37], it is possible to estimate that intellectual activity consumes 106 J.   

In the intellectual system of mankind. From known data, there are streams of printed information through books, newspapers, office documents (~ 1.6  • 1015 bytes a year).  This is 10,000 times less than the volumes of electronic information streams through phone, radio, TV, the Internet (~ 17.9 • 1018 bytes a year) [35]. In this connection, it is useful to examine the information energetics of mankind through examining the level of development of the electrical power industry as a precursor of the electronics industry.  At the beginning of the XXI century, worldwide the electricity industry was generating electric energy per year   1.2 • 1020 J [36].

In the intellectual system of a brain. The average physical working capacity of an average, healthy adult person is ~120 W, i.e., approximately equal to the capacity of a burning match [36]. The general consumption of energy by a human brain is about 25 watts [22].    Since a significant part of this energy will not be used, it is possible to estimate the applicable part to be equal to 10 W, the so called “intellectual power” (capacity W = J/sec).  The power of electricity networks worldwide, including for electronic information streams, at the beginning of XXI century has reached 2.1•1012 W [36].

The number of intellectual system components (parameter «n»). According to [9], the number of human neurons [16, 17, 30, 38, 39] and the limit to the number of human beings able to live on our planet are approximately the same (109-1012) (table 2).


 

The given material in the form of article - paper «To the Formula of Intellect» was been awarded by the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund at the Government of Russia *, by the Russian Agency of Scientific News **, by the British  Council ***, by the Association of Scientific Journalists of Russia - rank of the winner of  All-Russia competition «Science - to a Society - 2004»; The material is published in book by Eryomin A.L. "Noogenesis and the Theory of Intellect". Krasnodar: SovKub, 2005. - P. 59-68, 262-267. (ISBN 5-7221-0671-2)

*     http://www.rfh.ru/index.html

**   http://www.informnauka.ru/konkurs/index.shtml

*** http://www.britishcouncil.org/russia



 

 

Table 2. Estimations of quantity of components of intellectual systems 

Quantity of neurons in a brain

Maximum quantity of people of mankind

Year

The Author

Quantity of neurons, billion

Year

The Author (some data of the analysis of S.Kapitza[40])

Quantity of human beings, billion

1981

1985 1988 1991 1996

  Kostiuk [13]Bloom [35]Behtereva [36]Ivanitsky [14]Haken [27]

  10   

 10 - 50    100           1 - 1000   100

1891, 1925       

1945       

1960, 1967, 1973  

1977, 1981, 1983 

1978                 

1992, 1993         

1998

Ravenshtein, Penk

Pirson 

Baade, Clark, Mukenhausen

Buring, Vestling, Gilland Marketty       

Koehn, Erlih    

Kapitza

6; 7.7 - 9.5        

0.9 - 2.8    

30; 47 - 157; 35 - 40 

2.7 - 6.7; 2; 7.5

1000            

2.8 - 5.5; ≤ 5.5      

12.5 - 14

  

It is useful to define the border, beyond which simple vital activity based on reflexes and instinctive reaction ends and qualitative-quantitative intellectual process begins. There are several intellectual system peculiarities, such as synergetic, coherent, dissipative, entropic, resistant-unreceptive, etc) [9], which form those system processes. These features differentiate intellectual activity from other forms of activity, especially in the products.

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The author considers that the “pre-intellectual” period includes phylogenesis up to Homo sapiens (primates have n < 109 neurons); ontogenesis in individual development of the person up to 13-17 years (a newborn has n < 109); historical-evolutionary formation of the human population up to the XX century.  Comparative dynamics of this formation’s development, as well as quantitative characteristics of ‘n’ in intellectual systems are shown on the fig.1.

Fig. 1

There is a certain point at which a critical number of intellectual components is achieved, namely n ≥ 109. This point marks the appearance of the ‘noorevolution’ - transition of information system development to a qualitatively new autonomic-intellectual reasonable system, capable of high-grade synergetic activity through its components. Further, the phenomenon of intellectual activity’s appearance is comparable to the critical weight of a radioactive substance.  Each particle of such a substance possesses radio-activity, but the chain reaction, necessary for a nuclear explosion, can be started only in the case of its mass exceeding 9 kg, even by one particle.   

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To determine the size of the intellectual system its multilevel structural hierarchy was analysed. It was found that all comparable values of substructures, constituting a brain’s intellectual system, can be set forth in 6 subdominant levels and in 10 dimensional orders (fig.2). The size of the brain micro intellectual structures is less than the analogical parameters of the macro intellectual system of mankind (human brain and mankind) by 106.

Fig. 2

ANALOGY BETWEEN PARAMETERS OF ECOLOGY AND INTELLECTUAL SYSTEMS

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The chosen method of comparative parametrical analogy was repeatedly applied with success in the history of epistemology.  For example, in biology, the analogy between individual and historical development of living organisms has led to the proof of ‘the biogenetic law’ [41]. In physics, the analogy between the structure of the atom and the Solar system has led to the ‘planetary model of the atom’ [42]. In physiology, analogy between the organizational isolation of the cellular system and the nervous system has led to the theory of ‘autopoesis’ [7]. Analogical reasoning has not only promoted the best understanding of the world and the productive development of a science, but has also demonstrated iterative laws of evolution at different levels in various species of matter. 

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Considering the revealed range of similarities and quantitative analogies, similarities, conformities, proportions, from the point of view of the fractal approach, the author puts forward a hypothesis: ‘intellectual iteration’ – a repeating formation of intellectual function in a uniform line of size of material (intellects of people), as well as vertical transfer of recurrence of intellectual function in a higher dimensional rank in hierarchy of a matter (neuron - brain - mankind).

Disclosing of manifestations and opportunities of iteration of intellectual function in analogous pairs of intellectual systems (“the person – mankind”) is a worthy scientific purpose for ethologists, biologists, sociologists, physiologists and physicists.

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The best self-understanding of intellectual systems, more precise definition of their parameters and prognosis of development, can be promoted by researches using various kinds of models (physical, analogical, mathematical).

Thus,  substantiation of the intellect’s  parameters can promote definition of their modes in physics and physiology, and study of their potentials;  and this will permit us to formulate rules, mathematical formulas with the parameters-multipliers and coefficients, opening up the qualitative-quantitative structure and showing the mutual relation of the characteristics conditioning intellectual activity.

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But which parameter of intellect should be studied and why it is important?

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Results from the study of intellectual parameters can give us an opportunity to define the following: laws of evolution and interaction with environment of some “universal intelligence”, possible directions for the development of civilization, future effective reaction of the ‘global superintellect’ of mankind to challenges of the environment and cosmos, strategies for developing new abilities and skills of the intellectual system of a human population.

The human body is a house (Gk, oikos) for the brain which commands, makes it move, creates with its help. But what is the analogue to the body for the intellectual system of mankind?  Is it the entire human population of Earth, the ‘anthroposphere’? Should we speak of the noosphere, or of Gaia? Or should we combine the emphases of Vernadsky and Teilhard de Chardin (noosphere) and those of Lovelock (Gaia) with the emphasis on freedom of Berdyaev [43] ? The importance of the answer cannot be exaggerated.

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Meanwhile, mankind today, it seems to the author, represents a thinking teenager, whose parameters are the following.

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Was born in the late XX century C.E. (has already sufficient > 109 quantity of intellectual components).

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By means of ‘Eyes’ - has a possibility to see the immediate environment, his part of the world.  There have been created powerful microscopes, telescopes, even for deep space. It has become possible to achieve a massive extension of sight: e.g., a telescope-reflector with a mirror Æ 6 m, established in 1976 in Russia; submillimetric telescope in the USA with a parabolic mirror of Æ 15 m; a telescope projected by the South-European observatory in Chile with Æ 4 by 8-metre telescopes.  In 1990 NASA put into orbit the Hubble Space Telescope with a reflector of Æ 240 sm. By means of ‘Ears’ – can try to listen to the immediate environment.  For example, there are the radio telescopes, e.g., at Arecibo, in Puerto Rico, with a  diameter of 300 m,  and the Very Large Array at Socorro,  New Mexico, comprising  27 telescopes, each with a diameter of 25 m.

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By means of ‘Hands’ - has learned to: create structurally, extract resources (mega-, global projects, e.g., the cosmodromes, various kinds of power stations, telescopic and broadcasting objects and so forth); but has not been studying to the same extent how to protect oneself from e.g.,  bodies from space or to grasp such bodies.

By means of ‘Legs’ – has learned to move in (cosmic) space in search of resources necessary for his life or to run away from external (cosmic) dangers.

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‘The immune system’ takes the form of a system of world public health services, but there is also mankind’s competitive struggle against other biological populations on the Earth. The achievements include:  eradication of epidemics of smallpox by means of vaccination etc.  The problems include resistant strains of tuberculosis, AIDS, bird flu, etc.  More than 37 new infectious diseases have appeared on the Earth in the last 30 years.

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By means of ‘Tongue’ – has learned (e.g., from broadcasts in cosmic space), but had not managed yet to communicate with extraterrestrial intellectual systems.

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By means of ‘Receptors’ – has learned to feel not only the external but also his internal somato-sensory world; e.g., through such means as the monitoring equipment on biological, physical, chemical parameters in the atmo-, hydro-, and lithosphere, and also in a technosphere of Earth.  The analogy is with the thermal, olfactory, etc receptors of an individual human being.

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‘Consciousness’ – of himself, this symbolic teenager; yet – like an authentic teenager - does not realize completely his own identity, but already feels isolation from his environment and can engage in autonomic producible activity.  For example, by ‘decisions’, he tries to start to determine his future, using such democratic mechanisms as electronic, general voting.

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‘Memory’: ‘operative memory’ – has ideas, connected with necessity of critical problems of the modern era, e.g., struggle against new infections, measures to reduce global warming, provide food and power resources, etc; and  by ‘long-term memory’ - studies to remember, acts to accumulate knowledge in books, libraries, computer disks tapes, etc.

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‘Thinking’:  manifests ‘logical thinking’ through the development of a system of sciences and scientific institutes, subject to criteria of repeatability, falsifiability, etc, where data may be sorted, with the valid retained and the invalid being discarded.  There is also ‘image thinking’, and studies about thinking virtually and dreaming; and there is the film industry, the television network and the virtual world of the Internet.  These last have all expanded very widely to affect practically all human beings.

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Parameters of physics and the physiology of intellectual systems and their activity, quanta of intellect are necessary for investigating the present and in the future. This can give us confidence about our opportunities to adapt.  Trends of noogenesis can be investigated (Fig.1) [9, 13]. But in evolution nothing is predetermined precisely. Probably, the evolution of Homo sapiens depends on each person. The question is whether Mankind will aspire to form a World Reason, a Super-Intellect of the Earth, Global Consciousness.  The question is whether mankind will aspire to attain ‘Sophia’, - ‘creative knowledge in which all world ideas are included and which simultaneously is the eternal idea of the mankind’ [43, 44].

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CONCLUSIONS

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·        The activity of intellectual systems and their interaction with the information environment can be described by parameters: quantity of information, velocity, acceleration, force, energy and power. Intellectual energy may be represented as being in direct dependence on the quantity of the information, velocity, frequency, quantity of communications and path length of communications.

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·        The human population in its own ecological development (evolution period equals 200 thousands years) at present is in its active phase of autonomic intellectual system formation (n > 109).

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·        The intellectual system of mankind, in comparison with the intellectual system of a brain, to the present, comes nearer to comparable quantity of components (109-1011), is less compact in the sizes (> in 106 times), but faster in the frequency of components (> in 109 times) and in the velocity of communications (> in 10 times), now operates with greater volumes of making and memorizing information (> in 1010 times). 

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·        The definition of parameters for the ecology of intellectual systems can promote understanding about the existence of intellect in the macrosociety of Earth as an objective reality, can substantiate the theory of intellect, and lead to forecasting of the development of its capacities, productivity, and possible tools, for its use.  

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My great gratitude to Dr Andrey Demjanikov of St Petersburg and Dr Sergey Kirpotin of Tomsk for help in translation of the paper and to Dr Michael Brett-Crowther for valuable remarks and benevolent help. 

The full bibliography may be seen at http: // a-eremin.ru/rus/ 

Questions and proposals on the material are welcome at the address: aeremin@yandex.ru


 

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